Drupal relies on pluggable cache backends to store cache data such as Memcache, Wincache, Database, etc. The default storage backend is the Database, but Drupal being a very cache intensive application (even more in Drupal 8) you want to get better performance by using faster backends that will yield lower latency and scale better.
Moving caching away from the database is done by replacing the caching services by ones that do not rely on the database. You define the services in your services.yml file and the binaries routing in settings.php:
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